“I came to know what I didn’t use to know,”says Rokeya Begum, a member of Jatiyo Mohila Party. What she did not use to know is her responsibilities and rights of being a party member in the political arena. Bulbuli, Kohinoor, and Sadeka were also going through the same situation. They got over with this ignorance through round table meetings, workshops, and women dialogues arranged by Democracy International under the project of “Democratic Participation and Reform”.
Kohinoor Begum had joined politics in 2002. While being in Jatiyo Mohila Party, she only used to be active during elections when she used to campaign for the party candidates. Rest of the time, she would just sit home and take care of her tailoring business. Jatiyo Mohila Party is one of the many sectors of Jatiyo Party, consisting almost 100 women in Meherpur. Members there, like Kohinoor Begum, knew little about their responsibilities and rights. Even if they had enough potentiality to work for the people and the party, they did not know how to approach. They had irregular meetings where they used to discuss how they can add more members in the party. While campaigning during elections, they could not do properly as they did not know how to mix up with people and speak in public. They never realized that they can go further from their position within the party.
Through different training programs and seminars by Democracy International they learned to raise their voice up. They started to claim equality and accountability in decision making. Sadeka claimed why the male party leaders always take decisions according to their will. Members of the mohila party have rights to take part in decision making too. Before, the party leader would only give assurance of their rights, but now their boldness forced them to give them what they want. After attending women dialogue by Democracy International, Meherpur Jatiyo Mohila Party members built up an advocacy group which would make a list of promising female members who are eligible enough to be added in the main committee list of Jatiyo Party. It also created a space where the advocacy group could negotiate with the leading members of Jatiyo Party about adding the female members in the committee list. As a result of the negotiation, about 90 party members from Jatiyo Mohila Party have been added in the main committee list of Jatiyo Party few months ago.
Rokeya, Bulbuli, Kohinoor, and Sadeka are four of those women who have been added in the main committee list. According to them, it would not have happened so early if they did not have the support of Democracy International. “DI has opened our eyes and mouth,” says Sadeka Khatun who learned how to work for the progress of the party and realizes the importance of nominating the right person for an election. The addition into the main committee list also helped in flourishing her NGO, Onirban Mohila Kollyan Songstha. Bulbuli Khatun, a homemaker in occupation, now has plans to serve the people and make progress in different party related issues. After learning about different policies and public speaking, now they can influence more people during election and attract more people in the party through their speeches. People in general have faith in them as well as the male leaders of Jatiyo Party. They are cooperating with them like they do with other members and inform them different party related matters, which they did not use to do before.
Members of Jatiyo Mohila Party discovered their inner strength through different programs of Democracy International. They are willing to work for the general people and the party. Now, they are aiming to stand for elections while having the constant support of Democracy International.Leaders
Ours is an age when Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has become something that indicates our living standard. It has been the main device used to measure a country’s economy since 1944 (Dickinson). It indicates which countries are economically developed and the living standard of the countries’ people. On the other hand, Gross National Happiness (GNH), a newer term than GDP, emphasizes more on a nation’s wellbeing than economic status and was introduced in 1972 by the fourth king of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck. Bhutan is the only country till now that has adopted GNH to measure the progress of the nation instead of GDP. This paper, will argue that if the measurement of GNH is practiced in all countries, the world will be a better place to live in because happiness will prevail and inequality will not exist.
The measurement of GDP is done by aggregating a country’s all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports. Indirectly, GDP is related to the income of the individuals of a country because the more a person earns, the more he or she can consume. Conventionally, economists look at GDP to understand a nation’s economic development. When the GDP of a nation is going up, the economy is good and the nation is advancing (Lisa). On the other hand, the notion of GNH involves sustainable development taking a holistic approach towards the concept of progress. In GNH, equal importance is given to the non-economic form of well-being. The measurement of GNH contains nine domains: psychological wellbeing, health, education, time use, cultural diversity and resilience, good governance, community vitality, ecological diversity and resilience, and living standards. The domains here measure the well-being of the Bhutanese people, where well-being means accomplishing all the conditions of a ‘good life’, if not a monetarily wealthy life (Bhutan GNH Index).
According to David R. Loy, economists in present days live in a world of statistics and equations where human value does not exist (1). While comparing between nations, we just look at different data, like GDP, that indicate which nations earn more and consume more. Eventually, ranking of the GDP shows for different countries set them off for a race where they compete to increase their GDPs. As GDP has no upper limit, there is no finishing point of this race and the race keeps on going. Being so engrossed in the race, nobody notices that their lives are not at a state of well-being. The race is also devoid of human value, which makes a human being ‘human’. It lacks religious values too. Loy says, “Increasing our ‘standard of living’ has become so compulsive for us because it serves as a substitute for traditional religious values — or, more precisely, because it has actually become a kind of secular religion for us” (6). It also takes away people’s mental peace as they always think of increasing their wealth. The desire for wealth preoccupies us and shadows our life with the fear of poverty (Loy 8).
On the contrary, the limit of GNH is just to be happy. A person is considered happy even if he or she does not have adequacy in all of the domains because individuals having adequacy in at least six of the nine domains are considered happy. In pursuit of the nine domains to be happy, people end up having a healthy and prosperous life. For example, under the domain of ‘Psychological Well-being’, they acquire spirituality, life satisfaction, positive emotions, and avoid negative emotions, like anger, fear, worry, jealousy, and selfishness. This reduces people’s craving for material well-being. According to Lyonpo Jigme Thinley, Bhutan’s home minister and ex-prime minister, material well-being is only one component that does not ensure that people are at peace with their environment and in synchronization with each other. This is actually a concept that is based on Buddhist Philosophy (Revkin 2). Buddhism values nonattachment to material needs and upholds the virtue of having less wants, but that does not mean that it encourages poverty. In Buddhism, poverty is measured through the lacking of fundamental needs to lead an adequate life. In fact, it is a “clever way to enjoy your life,” said the Vietnamese teacher Thich Nhat Hanh, as mixing up the quality of life and the quantitative standard of living is considered foolish (Loy 5). Lord Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, has also instructed that satisfaction with whatever you have is the greatest wealth (Loy 4). This relates back to the domain of ‘Psychological Well-being’ where life satisfaction is achieved. So, in terms of Buddhist philosophy, a person satisfying that domain is not considered as poor even if he or she does not earn a lot. Thus, GNH is more important in people’s lives because it teaches us the need for self-limitation and self-satisfaction, instead of GDP that renders us a monetarized society.
GNH also ensures equality in the society. We emphasize more on the GDP and let it trigger the competition of earning more wealth. While competing, we do not look at those countries that have a lower GDP than us and feel happy by ourselves for having a higher GDP. We tend to look at those that have a higher GDP and push ourselves to earn even more. We tend to follow every possible way, legal or illegal, to increase our assets. In this competition, the poor fall behind because they cannot join or survive. We use up all the resources and do not leave anything for the poor in this competitive environment. That’s how they become deprived. Lack of resources and infrastructure make their lives miserable and definitely a miserable life with no sufficient food or adequate shelter is not a happy life. On the other hand, those who are using up all the resources in trying to make themselves richer and richer cannot call themselves happy either because they are never mentally satisfied. They always want to increase their income and accumulate GDP. This creates disparity between the rich and the poor. According to the United Nations Development Report for 1998, the three richest people on the planet have assets that exceed the combined Gross National Product of the 48 poorest countries (Loy 8). Loy states, “Three-fifths of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries lack basic sanitation, one-third have no safe drinking water, one-quarter are inadequately housed, one-fifth undernourished and one-fifth lack access to modern health services” (Ibid). Development agencies like World Bank try to help those countries, but unfortunately, it is usually the wealthy class of the country that is benefitted by this help while the poor remain poor.
Now, suppose a person in Bhutan has a job that pays him an adequate amount of money. He has a nice little home to live in with a nice family; he is able to meet the needs of his family; he has good neighbors; he does voluntary activities. On the whole, he leads a healthy and peaceful life. So, on the basis of the nine domains, he is a happy man. And it is the GNH index that shows him that he is happy, rather than showing him that there are other people in the world whose living standards are higher than his own, which GDP does. So, when the man finds himself happy, he will not desire for more. He will not hanker after wealth, so there will not be any competition of earning more wealth. Thus, he will just stay happy with whatever asset he has. In this way, he is just using up the resources that are allocated for him. Therefore, everyone gets an equal access to the resources. As a result, the poor also get a chance to better their condition by accessing resources and that creates equality in the society, not only on the basis of happiness, but also on the basis of livelihood.
One might say that emphasis on GNH will make people less ambitious as people will remain satisfied with what they have and will not have craving. But the point to be noted is GNH does not discourage non-economic achievements. Suppose the same person I have mentioned earlier, who is happy already, has invented a new technology after a lot of hard work. He had the ambition to invent such technology that inspired him to be successful. But for his achievement he will not expect any monetary reward because in pursuit of the nine domains, he is already devoid of craving for wealth. Earning money was not his intention behind the invention at all. His intention might be serving his nation with a new technology or the welfare of the mankind. Thus, GNH only promotes resistance to cravings for wealth, not a craving for other non-economic achievement.
This is also true that we cannot avoid GDP totally as it has been counted for a long period of time and has some significance also. But if we take a deeper look, we will be able to figure out whether it is really serving its purpose. As GDP shows the economic health of a nation, looking at the GDP, economic-decision makers make policies and development planning (“GDP and Its Importance”). But does GDP portray the actual economic condition of a country?
The measurement of GDP does not include the production of the products that are not purchased. It doesn’t count if someone grows his own food, but if someone likes to watch TV and buys one, GDP would count that (“Macroeconomics”). Moreover, even if GDP shows economic development, sometime it underestimates it too. The reason is it does not count the income gained from the black market (Pettinger). A number of nations earn much money through black markets, but still they might show a lower GDP, which misrepresents the economy of those nations.
Also GDP is submissive to oligarchy. For example, South Africa is in top 40 countries that have higher GDP, but 50% of the population in this country lives in poverty (“Three Limitations”). Thus, higher percentage of GDP is actually owned by a smaller but powerful group in this country. The greater number of people in poverty might not be able to access different infrastructure, which is important for economic development, but GDP is not used to improve that (Pettinger). So, GDP cannot actually represent the original living standard of nation’s population. Finally, GDP overvalues negative externalities. This is the bad effects that occur when consumption of production increases. When GDP increases, negative externalities, like air pollution and water pollution, increase too (“Three Limitations”). Living in a polluted environment affects the health of the people badly and we cannot expect development from a nation having an unhealthy population, no matter how high the GDP is of that nation.
All the reasons stated above indicate that the measurement of GDP does not serve the purposes it is supposed to serve; the purposes for which it is given so much importance. So, why GDP is worthy of measurement? And why should it not be replaced by GNH?
The world is full of sufferings that are generated from different cravings. We cannot heal all the sufferings even if we turn all the resources into consumable products because people’s craving is endless. At the same time, if the measurement of GNH is promoted everywhere, we will learn how to save ourselves from the craving that will lessen our suffering. Thus, according to Tibetan Buddhist analogy, we will learn to make shoes to save our feet from the thrones of the world rather than paving the whole ground. Paving the ground is a stupid attempt taken by “our collective technological and economic project” in effort to make us happy (Loy 6). In conclusion, making the measurement of GNH prevalent everywhere will bring happiness and equality and a world like this is indeed a better place to live in.
Loy, David R. “Buddhism and Poverty.” (n.d.): n. pag. Rpt. in Global Justice Course Packet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
Revkin, Andrew C. “A New Measure of Well-Being From a Happy Little Kingdom.” (n.d.): n. pag. Rpt. in Global Justice Course Packet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
Marriage seems to me a selfish thing to do, especially for girls in South Asia, the part where I belong to.
Your parents bring you to this earth. They feed you, clothe you, educate you, fulfill your wishes, and stay awake beside you when you are sick. Suddenly one day, you meet a stranger, marry him (spending your dad’s entire savings), and he becomes the top most priority of your life. In some cases, you fall in love and start thinking of him all day though you don’t know how HE thinks of you. You love your parents too, but their thought never occupied you. It’s weird, right? You settle yourself in his house leaving your dad’s one, make his countless relative your own, and take the responsibility of doing his laundry, making his food, keep his wallet, keys, tie, socks in place when he’s getting ready for office, taking care of him when he is sick. I bet you never did all these in your parents’ home. Your parents took care of you when you were not able to take care of yourself. When you became able to do that, you set for someone else to take care of! NOT YOUR PARENTS!
Okay, let’s consider some other cases too. If you are a working woman and you have maids to do all the laundry and cooking stuff, the work load lessens. Still you are expected to BE there! Because you are THE WIFE! You cannot make your maid serve the food to your hubby! Hubbies don’t like maids touching their stuff or taking care of them. They want their WIFE at particular times. After all, that’s why they married their wives!
One day you got a call from your dad’s home. Your mom’s sick. Your dad said that it’s just minor fever and not to bother about that. You eventually don’t bother because you are in-laws are coming tonight for dinner. You are too busy marinating your chicken. You promise to visit you parents in the coming weekend. Of course, you are not only a daughter; you are something more than that now. You are a wife, a daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, and what not. All this relationship comes with huge responsibilities that fade away your responsibility as a daughter. It’s okay to avoid the responsibility of a daughter towards the parents, responsibility towards your in-laws becomes more important because that’s only matters! If you do otherwise, people would say, “She only cares about her parents; what an irresponsible girl!”
I see no point in all these social norms! Marriage is important to reproduce for sure. If our parents didn’t get married, we wouldn’t exist. But why all these responsibilities? Why would my hubby and in-laws expect me to do stuff for them? What would I receive from them in return? Just appraisal of being a good wife and daughter-in-law? Why can’t my dear hubby do his work by himself and let me do mine? Why doesn’t he take care of HIS relatives and let me take care of mine?
Let your hubby help himself in the dining table and keep track of where his socks, wallet, and keys are because you are already doing it for yourself. Let him handle his guests because you have to visit and take care of your ailing mother. I won’t be so radical in some points. If it’s your hubby who takes care of you, you are also responsible to take care of him in return. MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING IS ALL YOU NEED! You get married because you want to share your life with him, not to take his responsibilities and forget your parents. Marriage shouldn’t change your life, but make your life more beautiful.
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
600 people reached the top of Mt. Everest in 2012. This blog got about 4,100 views in 2012. If every person who reached the top of Mt. Everest viewed this blog, it would have taken 7 years to get that many views.