A Big Dipper Phase of Life That is Worth Living

Just four weeks ago, I was stuck in the traffic of Dhaka, commuting to my work. Life was stuck in a routine, a boring one. Get up at 6 am, slip into jeans and tops, drape a scarf around the neck, have breakfast while mom packs the same thing for lunch, hop into the car, finally reach office after a sweaty battle with Dhaka traffic, and coming back home after similar struggle. Hardship doubles up when it rains. I used to be the happiest on Thursday nights. Not like I planned a lot of stuff for the weekend, stuff that could balance my weekday struggle. The thought of sleeping a bit longer in the morning and not having to go outside of home energized me a lot. I avoided going out as much as possible. Surprisingly, my parents hate to see me at home doing nothing, even if it’s weekend. They would offer me to go take a walk outside, but my one despising look was enough make them realize how much I hate the idea. Catching up with friends didn’t count and was something I was always up for because that was the only time I could be ME, only time I could rant about anything and everything, only time I could find some solace, altruistically.

I was an intern at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Dhaka for three months. It’s not as impressive as it sounds like. Ministry never had interns before; fortunately or unfortunately, I and one of classmates were the first interns (read guinea pigs). We didn’t even have a desk to work on. We just found ourselves a place in the corner of the library. So, the internship went more like a pilot project, an opportunity to make the pitch smoother for the future interns, our juniors at the university who can thank us later. At least in one case, I was lucky because this classmate-turned-to-co-worker is one of my dearest friends. She was the best person to help me out whenever we were asked difficult questions like, “What you want to do next?” or “Why are you here?”; someone with whom I had done multiple group assignments where I always tended to be a free-rider.

We were aliens. Till the end of the internship, we had to explain to the security guard at the entrance why we want to go in. Till the end of the internship, we explained at least one person a day about our position, our motive, our job description, and why we chose to intern here at the ministry rather than going for some other sector that would make a proper utilization of us. Nobody cared or even noticed if we bunked office or left earlier. For three months, we left no stone unturned in search of opportunity to work and receive exposure as much as possible. We met some extra-ordinary personalities who have been contributing with their brainpower in terms of forming foreign policies and building up foreign relations for the country. We looked for opportunities to work where the future interns can be engaged in.

Well, we also undertook assignments that we can boast about; for example, writing up statements for Bangladesh on international issues for the UN General Assembly, researching and reporting on opportunities of some proposed and existing diplomatic missions abroad, and developing resources helpful for day to day operation of the ministry.

Sudden change of backdrop.

Within one week, I am in a van, travelling to a remote village of the Northwest of Bangladesh, a place where I have never been to, with colleagues whom I met just a couple of days ago. I was going there for a field visit because within 2 weeks I was going to shift there with 18 volunteers and my UK counterpart for three months on a development project. In the meantime, I loaded my suitcase with clothes that are “village-friendly”. No more jeans and tops. My office is at ten minutes walking distance, an abandoned room with a tinned roof, broken windows, and doors with completely nothing in it, not even a chair and a table. The only market in the village only becomes alive in the evening for couple of hours where only men come and socialize. Mode of transportation would be 3 wheeler rickshaw van and only needed if I need to get out of the village for some reason. Traffic? Well, the van driver has to slow down or brake if only there’s a queue of ducks crossing the road or a livestock relaxing on it like he owns it.

I and my counterpart chaired a meeting with the people we will be working with in the village. Here, we, especially my UK counterpart were alien too. We were asked questions that are similar to the questions asked in the ministry. This time, it was easier to answer because the answer involved them, their well being. We were there to work with the youth of the village, mobilize them, make them aware and vocal about their rights, and train them for life skills, skills that would earn them livelihood. At the same time, we will be involving the local government and make them more responsive towards the community. They accepted us at once, without any further question or doubt. They said they’ll be waiting for the time when we finally shift there and get started with the project work.

We came back with hearts full of hope. We met our volunteers, shared all the information received during the field visit. Together we travelled for 14 hours to get to the community, dealing with all kind of hardship together, starting from flat tire to slow service of lunch at a highway restaurant. We got welcomed at our village by heavy rain almost at the middle of the night, yet all of us found our way to different host homes. “Tomorrow is a new day,” said my counterpart.

It had been just 2 weeks I know him. He is not a person to be judged at first sight. The only thought that crossed my mind when I first saw him is, “Whoa! That’s a tall one!” Within two weeks I realized I wouldn’t have gotten a better counterpart. He’s the kind of person who would have a definite direction and purpose before setting out for somewhere. He’s one of the few gentle men I have met in my life with all the British-like manners poured in. You know, adding sorry, thank you, please at the end of each sentence, holding up doors, always let the ladies go first and so on. He’s very focused and passionate about the project (so am I!). He’s a good listener which is much needed for making the leadership role more balanced. Most importantly, he has his share of humor when it’s needed, which is a big relief for me. Altogether, we have built a strong working relationship. We did a great job in terms of team building. Everyone seemed super excited to know their roommates and counterparts. We were so excited to get started with the project. Team Northwest was on!

Then everything got blurred.

On the night of our very first day in the community we got to know that my counterpart has to leave for the UK to resolve a menial visa issue, immediately. After a long day of orientation, me and my counterpart sat together to reflect back to what we did for the day and what needs to be done. That’s when I got a call from the Project Manager and was conveyed this news. He said not to be frustrated, but I know how hard it is to have a straight face. I am not fancied by the line “The show must go on”. I and my counterpart realized we have no control over this issue. So we decided to do what’s best for the project: I stick to the planned activities while my counterpart flies back to the UK to resolve his visa issue and help with the project work as much as possible from long distance.IMG_5801

So here I am, in a remote village of Northwest Bangladesh, with 18 people of around my age from two different parts of the world, standing in one leg like a flamingo, eager to put the first step towards the project, eagerly waiting for the return of the other Team Leader with fingers crossed. I and my team ARE a little frustrated, but we are not hopeless. We are still working together on building the pillars of the project. It’s a full moon tonight. All my team members came together to embrace the moonlight and suddenly I feel so lucky to have such a wonderful team! 

All these changes took place within four weeks, just four weeks. I love my life!

28 September 2015

5 (or maybe 4) things I’ll do When I’ve Only 24 Hours Left to Live

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A few days ago, I saw an article online which was about thing someone would do if he/she gets to know that they have only 24 hours left to live. There are actually a lot of articles as such if you just google it. When I went through one of them, it made me think what I would do if I were in that very unlikely situation. So, I came up with this list as I couldn’t decide on one single thing to do. Surprisingly, while creating the list, the thought of death didn’t scare me at all. On the other hand, I felt the sheer happiness of carrying out all these things listed below.

1. Spend all my money eating at places I always wanted to but never could.

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2. Write letters/e-mails to the near and dear ones, write about my feelings for them, appreciating what they did for me, and apologizing if I have ever hurt them.

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3. A night out with my friends, drink and party hard.

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4. Give away all my belongings.

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5. I would love to experience one more thing which requires a partner, but for the lack of a partner, I’ll give up that wish.😉

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So, what about your list?😀

Sister Love

Reblogging because it’s sister’s birthday!

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keep-calm-and-love-your-sister-1140Do you remember when you were a newborn baby, someone took you in her small arms clumsily and you bitterly complained with a cry? You were brought up wearing her clothes which she used to wear in her childhood. You enjoyed breaking her toys that she had preserved with her life for years, but she never complained about that. She is no one but your sister.

A sister is someone who used to change your diapers when you were an infant and your mother was not at home.

A sister is when she took you to the playground obeying your mother’s order. Her peers used to play joyfully there, but she couldn’t help but see that from a distance, holding you in her arms. She couldn’t join them because she had to look after you.

A sister is someone who is born to create competition for you. Sometimes you think…

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Cut the Knots of the Corruption Web

Bangladesh is a champion of corruption and we, the Bangladeshis, religiously curse corruption at every point of our lives. When we are young, we promise ourselves that we will never engage in this heinous activity. We teach our kids that corruption is a bad thing to do and how it is being a blockade for our country’s progress. Do we realize that corruption is just like a web and we are just one of the knots that is keeping the web integrated?

A few months ago, I had to visit a government office for a particular document to make a machine readable passport. My parents advised me to slCorruption: A Way of Lifeip a couple of hundred taka notes to the government employee and get the document. I complied because my plan was to get the document in hand and ask the employee whether he gets paid by the government or not when he asks for money. My parents thought it to be a very bad idea and my dad decided to go fetch the document instead.

Maybe the government employee receives a meager salary which might not be enough to run a family. As he gets accustomed to the “extra income”, his desires increase too. Sometimes we slip those hundred taka notes out of pity and because we are so rich the amount does not hurt our wallet. Most of the time, we are forced to slip the notes because we want to get things done without delay. Even if we earn the money after such toil and pay taxes to the government, we have to let go a big portion of our hard earned money paying bribes at different places. If we just randomly pick a sector, say law enforcement sector, we will find 79.6% of the household faced corruption when they sought any kind of help from the law enforcement agencies. Each household had to pay an average amount of 3,352 taka to get things done in this sector (Nawaz 2012). We feel proud of ourselves that we are not receiving bribe. However, we are bribing others and that keeps the corruption cycle going.

Now the question is how to untwine the web. In an article entitled “Anti-corruption Mechanisms in Bangladesh,” Advocate M. Shamsul Haque mentions, “…corruption in Bangladesh is considered a way of life that cannot be avoided or eradicated” (Haque). Are we going to get used to this way of life? For example, to avoid bribing, one might suggest complaining to the higher authority. It is quite confirmed we will find the higher authority corrupted to a greater level than their juniors. How can we expect them to take action against their juniors when they themselves are found guilty for the same crime? This even encourages the lower level employees to claim for bribes because they know nobody going to charge them for the crime. On top of that, their seniors might be claiming commissions from them as a price of letting them receiving bribes. As a result, corruption prevails and our life becomes so much intertwined in it that gradually we stop noticing it. Even a teacher who is supposed to teach his or her students that corruption is a bad thing has to pay a bribe to get a job in a government school. A report of Transparency International, Bangladesh mentions that to get a job as a teacher in a registered primary school, bribe is taken in the form of donation. Not only this, but also they are coerced to pay 1000-1500 taka in the name of different subscriptions when they go through a training program for “skill development” (“Administration and Management of Primary Education: Problems and the Way Out”, 5).

As a remedy to corruption, Advocate Haque suggests to make a “corruption-free” family. Parents might try to do that by encouraging their children for career option that includes less scopes of corruption, options like—doctor or engineer. Even if all of them don’t turn out to be doctors or engineers, many pursue private sectors where they think they can extricate themselves from corruption. Nowadays, parents encourage the least to go for government job because they might have to pay a huge amount of bribes to get the job. Secondly, the salary is very low and they do not want their kids to get involved in corruption to supplement their income. At the end of the day, they somehow get involved in corruption when they have to pay those extra amounts to get their passport, driving license, or at least to get rid of the traffic sergeant blocking their way for no good reason. This takes us to the state of nature described by Thomas Hobbes where human by nature is selfish (Wolff 12). People pay bribes without a big fuss because their self-interest lies there. They want to get their work done without any delay and do not mind paying for it when it is needed.

Advocate Haque also suggests exercise of religious values which I think has least to do anything with corruption. Even if we avoid corruption in fear of god, we submit to it at different levels to please our gods, such as—in the process of going for hajj or getting permission to set up a puja pandal during Durga Puja. Advocate Haque has said, corruption has become a way of life, we think it does not contradict with our religion when we are bribing people and praying to our gods simultaneously.eradicate corruption

So, what is the solution? What would have happened if I had collected that document and refused to bribe that government employee? It would not have made any difference in the whole corruption system, but it would bring some change if a large number of people do the same at once. When a group of people refuse to bribe, it sets an example that there is an option to be bold and say no to bribery. Gradually, it will ripple all over the society and make more people realize that they have the collective power to come out of the corruption web. When everyone altogether refuses to pay bribe to anyone, corruption has to stop right there. To be candid, this sounds dreamy when every individual is driven by their self-interest. The conflict here is between individual rationality and collective rationality. Collective rationality is considered the best way when everyone becomes a part of it. According to an example by Jean-Paul Sartre, individual rationality said cutting down trees would increase productivity, but that would destroy the land. Collective rationality is to avoid cutting trees altogether. Same applies in terms of states. Individual rationality lets us pay the bribe and get our work done, but when everyone does the same, it brings destruction to the state. To make collective rationality successful, effort needs to come from the agency.  Therefore, to achieve a society free of corruption, everyone needs to let go their individual rationality and become a part of the collective rationality. Is it something very feasible to think of? I hate to be pessimistic.

Works Cited

“Administration and Management of Primary Education: Problems and the Way Out.” Transparency International Bangladesh. Transparency International Bangladesh, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ti-bangladesh.org/beta3/images/max_file/rp_es_PrimEducation_En.pdf&gt;.

Haque, M. Shamsul. “Anti-corruption Mechanisms in Bangladesh.” – Asian Human Rights Commission. Asian Human Rights Commission, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014. <http://www.humanrights.asia/resources/journals-magazines/article2/0901/08anti-corruption-mechanisms-in-bangladesh&gt;.

Nawaz, Farzana. “U4 Expert Answer.” U4: Anti-Corruption Resource Center. Ed. Gareth Sweeney. CHR. Michelsen Institute, 12 Feb. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.u4.no%2Fpublications%2Foverview-of-corruption-within-the-justice-sector-and-law-enforcement-agencies-in-bangladesh%2Fdownloadasset%2F2800>.

10 signs that say you are from AUW (it’s lame)

1. You are too cool to dress up like other girls all the time because you don’t have time for that!Image

 

Sportswear is easy to find! 

2. But when you dress up occasionally, you leave the opposite gender breathless! 

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Before and after

3. You always have something to carry with yourself, e.g. a backpack (loaded with laptop and study materials), a basketball, a guitar, or a DSLR.

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4. You are eager to go home on vacations, but you particularly don’t do anything special there, except for sleep, eat, and repeat or having intellectual fights with your family members.

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“I’m so excited, I forgot my ticket!”

5. Normally your weekends are packed up with assignments due next week, readings, club meetings, and a whole bunch of events happening in campus. 

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“So you’re telling me it’s weekend and I should relax?”

6. Whatever you eat at home or anywhere, it tastes heavenly after eating dining hall food. 

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“Let’s cook anything, it will surely taste good”

7. All those critical thinking classes make a lot of things around you illogical.

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8. Gender roles, stereotypes, sexism, racism, discrimination; you cannot pass a day without encountering one of these terms.

 

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9. You can’t wait to graduate and get out of this place, but you start getting emotional from the very beginning of your senior year.

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10. And finally, after graduation, you have no idea what you gonna do with your life (because there are way too many options or the other way round)!

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From Ignorance to Empowerment: Case Study of Women Leaders of Grassroot Level

“I came to know what I didn’t use to know,” says Rokeya Begum, a member of Jatiyo Mohila Party. What she did not use to know is her responsibilities and rights of being a party member in the political arena. Bulbuli, Kohinoor, and Sadeka were also going through the same situation. They got over with this ignorance through round table meetings, workshops, and women dialogues arranged by Democracy International under the project of “Democratic Participation and Reform”.

Kohinoor Begum had joined politics in 2002. While being in Jatiyo Mohila Party, she only used to be active during elections when she used to campaign for the party candidates. Rest of the time, she would just sit home and take care of her tailoring business. Jatiyo Mohila Party is one of the many sectors of Jatiyo Party, consisting ­­­­almost 100 women in Meherpur. Members there, like Kohinoor Begum, knew little about their responsibilities and rights. Even if they had enough potentiality to work for the people and the party, they did not know how to approach. They had irregular meetings where they used to discuss how they can add more members in the party. While campaigning during elections, they could not do properly as they did not know how to mix up with people and speak in public. They never realized that they can go further from their position within the party.

Through different training programs and seminars by Democracy International they learned to raise their voice up. They started to claim equality and accountability in decision making. Sadeka claimed why the male party leaders always take decisions according to their will. Members of the mohila party have rights to take part in decision making too. Before, the party leader would only give assurance of their rights, but now their boldness forced them to give them what they want. After attending women dialogue by Democracy International, Meherpur Jatiyo Mohila Party members built up an advocacy group which would make a list of promising female members who are eligible enough to be added in the main committee list of Jatiyo Party. It also created a space where the advocacy group could negotiate with the leading members of Jatiyo Party about adding the female members in the committee list. As a result of the negotiation, about 90 party members from Jatiyo Mohila Party have been added in the main committee list of Jatiyo Party few months ago.

Rokeya, Bulbuli, Kohinoor, and Sadeka are four of those women who have been added in the main committee list. According to them, it would not have happened so early if they did not have the support of Democracy International. “DI has opened our eyes and mouth,” says Sadeka Khatun who learned how to work for the progress of the party and realizes the importance of nominating the right person for an election. The addition into the main committee list also helped in flourishing her NGO, Onirban Mohila Kollyan Songstha. Bulbuli Khatun, a homemaker in occupation, now has plans to serve the people and make progress in different party related issues. After learning about different policies and public speaking, now they can influence more people during election and attract more people in the party through their speeches. People in general have faith in them as well as the male leaders of Jatiyo Party. They are cooperating with them like they do with other members and inform them different party related matters, which they did not use to do before. 

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Female grassroot leaders engaged in Women Dialogue arranged by Democracy International

Members of Jatiyo Mohila Party discovered their inner strength through different programs of Democracy International. They are willing to work for the general people and the party. Now, they are aiming to stand for elections while having the constant support of Democracy International.Leaders

Philosophy of GNH: In Pursuit of Happiness and Equality

Ours is an age when Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has become something that indicates our living standard. It has been the main device used to measure a country’s economy since 1944 (Dickinson). It indicates which countries are economically developed and the living standard of the countries’ people. On the other hand, Gross National Happiness (GNH), a newer term than GDP, emphasizes more on a nation’s wellbeing than economic status and was introduced in 1972 by the fourth king of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck. Bhutan is the only country till now that has adopted GNH to measure the progress of the nation instead of GDP. This paper, will argue that if the measurement of GNH is practiced in all countries, the world will be a better place to live in because happiness will prevail and inequality will not exist.

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A beautiful landscape of Bhutan

The measurement of GDP is done by aggregating a country’s all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports. Indirectly, GDP is related to the income of the individuals of a country because the more a person earns, the more he or she can consume. Conventionally, economists look at GDP to understand a nation’s economic development. When the GDP of a nation is going up, the economy is good and the nation is advancing (Lisa). On the other hand, the notion of GNH involves sustainable development taking a holistic approach towards the concept of progress. In GNH, equal importance is given to the non-economic form of well-being. The measurement of GNH contains nine domains: psychological wellbeing, health, education, time use, cultural diversity and resilience, good governance, community vitality, ecological diversity and resilience, and living standards. The domains here measure the well-being of the Bhutanese people, where well-being means accomplishing all the conditions of a ‘good life’, if not a monetarily wealthy life (Bhutan GNH Index).

According to David R. Loy, economists in present days live in a world of statistics and equations where human value does not exist (1). While comparing between nations, we just look at different data, like GDP, that indicate which nations earn more and consume more. Eventually, ranking of the GDP shows for different countries set them off for a race where they compete to increase their GDPs. As GDP has no upper limit, there is no finishing point of this race and the race keeps on going. Being so engrossed in the race, nobody notices that their lives are not at a state of well-being. The race is also devoid of human value, which makes a human being ‘human’. It lacks religious values too. Loy says, “Increasing our ‘standard of living’ has become so compulsive for us because it serves as a substitute for traditional religious values — or, more precisely, because it has actually become a kind of secular religion for us” (6). It also takes away people’s mental peace as they always think of increasing their wealth. The desire for wealth preoccupies us and shadows our life with the fear of poverty (Loy 8).

On the contrary, the limit of GNH is just to be happy. A person is considered happy even if he or she does not have adequacy in all of the domains because individuals having adequacy in at least six of the nine domains are considered happy. In pursuit of the nine domains to be happy, people end up having a healthy and prosperous life. For example, under the domain of ‘Psychological Well-being’, they acquire spirituality, life satisfaction, positive emotions, and avoid negative emotions, like anger, fear, worry, jealousy, and selfishness. This reduces people’s craving for material well-being. According to Lyonpo Jigme Thinley, Bhutan’s home minister and ex-prime minister, material well-being is only one component that does not ensure that people are at peace with their environment and in synchronization with each other. This is actually a concept that is based on Buddhist Philosophy (Revkin 2). Buddhism values nonattachment to material needs and upholds the virtue of having less wants, but that does not mean that it encourages poverty. In Buddhism, poverty is measured through the lacking of fundamental needs to lead an adequate life. In fact, it is a “clever way to enjoy your life,” said the Vietnamese teacher Thich Nhat Hanh, as mixing up the quality of life and the quantitative standard of living is considered foolish (Loy 5). Lord Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, has also instructed that satisfaction with whatever you have is the greatest wealth (Loy 4). This relates back to the domain of ‘Psychological Well-being’ where life satisfaction is achieved. So, in terms of Buddhist philosophy, a person satisfying that domain is not considered as poor even if he or she does not earn a lot. Thus, GNH is more important in people’s lives because it teaches us the need for self-limitation and self-satisfaction, instead of GDP that renders us a monetarized society.

GNH also ensures equality in the society. We emphasize more on the GDP and let it trigger the competition of earning more wealth. While competing, we do not look at those countries that have a lower GDP than us and feel happy by ourselves for having a higher GDP. We tend to look at those that have a higher GDP and push ourselves to earn even more. We tend to follow every possible way, legal or illegal, to increase our assets. In this competition, the poor fall behind because they cannot join or survive. We use up all the resources and do not leave anything for the poor in this competitive environment. That’s how they become deprived. Lack of resources and infrastructure make their lives miserable and definitely a miserable life with no sufficient food or adequate shelter is not a happy life. On the other hand, those who are using up all the resources in trying to make themselves richer and richer cannot call themselves happy either because they are never mentally satisfied. They always want to increase their income and accumulate GDP. This creates disparity between the rich and the poor. According to the United Nations Development Report for 1998, the three richest people on the planet have assets that exceed the combined Gross National Product of the 48 poorest countries (Loy 8). Loy states, “Three-fifths of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries lack basic sanitation, one-third have no safe drinking water, one-quarter are inadequately housed, one-fifth undernourished and one-fifth lack access to modern health services” (Ibid). Development agencies like World Bank try to help those countries, but unfortunately, it is usually the wealthy class of the country that is benefitted by this help while the poor remain poor.

Now, suppose a person in Bhutan has a job that pays him an adequate amount of money. He has a nice little home to live in with a nice family; he is able to meet the needs of his family; he has good neighbors; he does voluntary activities. On the whole, he leads a healthy and peaceful life. So, on the basis of the nine domains, he is a happy man. And it is the GNH index that shows him that he is happy, rather than showing him that there are other people in the world whose living standards are higher than his own, which GDP does. So, when the man finds himself happy, he will not desire for more. He will not hanker after wealth, so there will not be any competition of earning more wealth. Thus, he will just stay happy with whatever asset he has. In this way, he is just using up the resources that are allocated for him. Therefore, everyone gets an equal access to the resources. As a result, the poor also get a chance to better their condition by accessing resources and that creates equality in the society, not only on the basis of happiness, but also on the basis of livelihood.

Happiness is all you need
Happiness is all you need

One might say that emphasis on GNH will make people less ambitious as people will remain satisfied with what they have and will not have craving. But the point to be noted is GNH does not discourage non-economic achievements. Suppose the same person I have mentioned earlier, who is happy already, has invented a new technology after a lot of hard work. He had the ambition to invent such technology that inspired him to be successful. But for his achievement he will not expect any monetary reward because in pursuit of the nine domains, he is already devoid of craving for wealth. Earning money was not his intention behind the invention at all. His intention might be serving his nation with a new technology or the welfare of the mankind. Thus, GNH only promotes resistance to cravings for wealth, not a craving for other non-economic achievement.

This is also true that we cannot avoid GDP totally as it has been counted for a long period of time and has some significance also. But if we take a deeper look, we will be able to figure out whether it is really serving its purpose. As GDP shows the economic health of a nation, looking at the GDP, economic-decision makers make policies and development planning (“GDP and Its Importance”). But does GDP portray the actual economic condition of a country?

The measurement of GDP does not include the production of the products that are not purchased. It doesn’t count if someone grows his own food, but if someone likes to watch TV and buys one, GDP would count that (“Macroeconomics”). Moreover, even if GDP shows economic development, sometime it underestimates it too. The reason is it does not count the income gained from the black market (Pettinger). A number of nations earn much money through black markets, but still they might show a lower GDP, which misrepresents the economy of those nations.

Also GDP is submissive to oligarchy. For example, South Africa is in top 40 countries that have higher GDP, but 50% of the population in this country lives in poverty (“Three Limitations”). Thus, higher percentage of GDP is actually owned by a smaller but powerful group in this country. The greater number of people in poverty might not be able to access different infrastructure, which is important for economic development, but GDP is not used to improve that (Pettinger). So, GDP cannot actually represent the original living standard of nation’s population. Finally, GDP overvalues negative externalities. This is the bad effects that occur when consumption of production increases. When GDP increases, negative externalities, like air pollution and water pollution, increase too (“Three Limitations”). Living in a polluted environment affects the health of the people badly and we cannot expect development from a nation having an unhealthy population, no matter how high the GDP is of that nation.

All the reasons stated above indicate that the measurement of GDP does not serve the purposes it is supposed to serve; the purposes for which it is given so much importance. So, why GDP is worthy of measurement? And why should it not be replaced by GNH?

The world is full of sufferings that are generated from different cravings. We cannot heal all the sufferings even if we turn all the resources into consumable products because people’s craving is endless. At the same time, if the measurement of GNH is promoted everywhere, we will learn how to save ourselves from the craving that will lessen our suffering. Thus, according to Tibetan Buddhist analogy, we will learn to make shoes to save our feet from the thrones of the world rather than paving the whole ground. Paving the ground is a stupid attempt taken by “our collective technological and economic project” in effort to make us happy (Loy 6). In conclusion, making the measurement of GNH prevalent everywhere will bring happiness and equality and a world like this is indeed a better place to live in.

Work Cited

Loy, David R. “Buddhism and Poverty.” (n.d.): n. pag. Rpt. in Global Justice Course Packet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Revkin, Andrew C. “A New Measure of Well-Being From a Happy Little Kingdom.” (n.d.): n. pag. Rpt. in Global Justice Course Packet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Dickinson, Elizabeth. “GDP: a brief history”. ForeignPolicy.com. Retrieved 10 December 2012.

Smith, Lisa. “High GDP Means Economic Prosperity, Or Does It?” Investopedia. Investopedia US, A Division of ValueClick, Inc., 20 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/08/genuine-progress-indicator-gpi.asp&gt;.

“BHUTAN GNH INDEX.” Gross National Happiness. Centre For Bhutan Studies, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. <http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/articles/&gt;.

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